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Failure of Democracy in Pakistan ; A tale of constant struggle

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What is democracy?

Democracy is a Greek word that means, “ rule by people”. It is a type of government wherein matchless quality of force is vested in individuals of citizens the whole, and it is directed by them, or the officials designated by them. as indicated by Chambers Dictionary it additionally implies a condition of society described by acknowledgment of balance of right and honors political, social, and legitimate equity. The most acknowledged meaning of a majority rules system is Government of the people, for the people, and by the people (Abraham Lincoln). Freedom, equality, and fraternity are the aides of present-day democratic political belief. But in many developing countries these beliefs are hurting along with having the failure of democracy in Pakistan.

Why democracy?

Democracy is an important type of government because of its different core characteristics.

  1. Role of media
  2. Free and fair elections
  3. Education
  4. Judiciary
  5. Freedom of speech
  6. Religious freedom and tolerance
  7. Equality

These standards are instinctively engaging, and they help to clarify why a majority rule government is so well known. Obviously, we feel it is reasonable that we ought to have as much possibility as any other person to settle on normal standards.

History of democratic failure in Pakistan

Since its beginning, the most troublesome test Pakistan has battled to meet has been to build up a genuine majority rule framework, which could ensure its endurance, strength, and improvement. Sadly, the plant of a vote-based system in Pakistan has not taken its foundations adequately profound to make the country “a sturdy majority rule state”, regardless of this reality that Pakistan bloomed in the dirt of a majority rule government. Failure of democracy in Pakistan passed through various stages over the period oscillating between the rule of the civil and military establishment. 

Since Independence, Pakistan has encountered various types of government that incorporate Parliamentary, Presidential frameworks, military law, and a vote-based system. Under the constitution of 1956 Pakistan had encountered a parliamentary framework yet inside two years, the constitution was suspended, and military law had been forced by General Ayub Khan in 1958. In 1962 Ayub Khan presented the official framework under the constitution of 1962 in which he sent off the arrangement of essential popular governments in Pakistan. Be that as it may, because of defilement, fixing in decisions, and nepotism this framework likewise couldn’t prevail in Pakistan.

Later the military law system, the new regular citizen-government presented the new constitution in 1973. Under the 1973s constitution Parliamentary type of government has been carried out once more. Additionally, Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto was the main chosen Premier of Pakistan who had finished his five years residency. Be that as it may, this vote-based cycle was again contorted by Zia-ul-Haq, who forced military law in Pakistan in July 1977. Consequently, Pakistan again stayed heavily influenced by an undemocratic government from 1977 to 1988. Later the demise of Zia-ul-Haq, the political race had been led in 1988 and Benazir Bhutto turned into the head of Pakistan. Nonetheless, in 1990 the Pakistan individuals party (PPP) government was suspended under the charge of defilement and helpless administration. From 1993 to 1996 PPP again stayed as a decision party yet couldn’t finish its residency and got excused because of defilement allegations. Then again, the Pakistan Muslim League (PMLN) governed from 1991 to 1993 and 1997-1999.

Here once more, the chosen administration of PMLN couldn’t finish its residency also in October 1999 General Musharraf had forced Martial law in the country. The course of a majority rule government was over and over wrecked in Pakistan. Notwithstanding, President Musharraf had guaranteed that he will leave a supportable majority rule government set-up in Pakistan which will stop military takeover later on. He additionally asserted that his administration would set out sufficient work open doors, HR, mitigate neediness, and will work on the fundamental offices of life yet he additionally didn’t satisfy this large number of guarantees.

Besides, before decisions, practically all political pioneers guaranteed that they will work for the government assistance of the nation when they came into power. Notwithstanding, still, everything states couldn’t adapt to the essential issues of normal residents. Hence, the overall population is as yet experiencing fundamental offices of life, food and water lack, energy emergency, and chronic weakness offices. The previous Prime Minister of Pakistan Mian Nawaz Shareef guaranteed that through our strategies and difficult work we will make Pakistan a genuine government assistance state.  Notwithstanding, similar to the past government, his administration couldn’t satisfy their guarantees.

Failure of Democracy in Pakistan

Democracy of Pakistan faced number issues in its survival and there are number of different mixed factors. Reasons of failure of democracy in Pakistan could be analyzed through these factors.

Lack of democratic values

in Pakistan genuine democratic standards couldn’t be prevailing due to many variables, for example, conflicts and clashes between states are exceptionally normal in Pakistani legislative issues. Hence, the inconsistent and undemocratic practices of political elites are a serious issue in the improvement of a genuinely democratic system in Pakistan.

Constitution formation

Since autonomy, Pakistan has encountered three constitutions in 1956, 1962, and 1973. Which too incorporates two acting protected courses of action (in 1947 and 1972), and two premier endeavors of protected designing (in 1985 and 2002). The development of a sound constitution is the sign of prevailing democracy.

Political parties

Failure of democracy in Pakistan is also greatly influenced by problems of political parties in Pakistan. The political parties are a device of mass preparation and support in Pakistan. Notwithstanding, the significant test for the political initiative is to adjust the job of ideological groups to show a portrayal and support the assembly. Tragically, the government officials embrace dictator approaches and perspectives rather than empowering and advancing democratic qualities, strategies, practices, law and order, and capacity to bear resistance groups

Role of state institutions

In a democratic state the role of government and its institutions is the protection of citizens. A myriad  of political problems in Pakistan is the product of failure of institutions fulfilling their duty which is the hurting the democratic norms.

Lack of credibility of elections

Free, and fair elections are the genuine substance of democratic rule. Notwithstanding, the record of Pakistan’s decisions in such manner is somewhat poor. Along these lines, defeated parties got indulge in the blame games instead of accepting the decision of majority. On the hand winning sides started to use institutions for private gains instead of working for greater public good.

Communication gap

There is greater communication gap between political leaders and general public which is creating political problems in Pakistan. In Pakistan, Civil and military pioneers have dominated. In spite of the reality that practically all political leaders are in favor of a democratic government, they show little interest in the progress of real democracy in Pakistan.

Unawareness about nature of democracy

A majority rules government in Pakistan is inadequate with regards to its actual embodiment because of the unawareness of individuals about the type of a democratic government in Pakistan. It is under the strike of Islamic and secular values and somewhat mixture of both.


Currently in Pakistan democracy is facing a number of issues regarding the failure of democracy in Pakistan. A true democracy can be built up by following its major tenets. For the achievement of a democratic system, and the future of democracy in Pakistan essay should be focused on the job of government foundations like the lawmaking body, the judiciary is significant. The job of chosen lawmakers is to work for the government assistance of their residents. Free, fair elections are essential for its serene progress of it. Education will play a vital role in the awareness of citizens, so they better know their duties and rights. They could strive for these rights as per democratic norms if find any violation.

Hira Bibi is a student of BS Political Science at Quaid I Azam University Islamabad. She has an interest in reading and analysing world political affairs and writing about them. She can be reached at hirakhan2601@gmail.com.

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