The continuing relevance of Aristotle
Yes, Aristotle and his political philosophy are relevant in contemporary global politics. He was among the very first political thinkers. His political philosophy mainly emphasizes the constitutionalism and rule of law. Aristotelian concepts still serve as the guiding principles for understanding political philosophy today.
One may agree or disagree with the philosophy of Aristotle but cannot completely negate it. To find that connection, there is a need to understand the basics of Aristotelian philosophy.
Who was Aristotle?
History is loaded with incredible philosophers and thinkers. We have Confucius in China, Thomas Aquinas in Medieval Europe, and many other current philosophers serving the purpose of making the world a better living place. Indeed, many individuals are associated with being a rationalist and just philosophers.
Yet just a single individual is associated with being ‘The Philosopher”, who is also among the founders of philosophy. That’s the term Thomas Aquinas used to depict Aristotle. With impacts that are as yet felt to this day, Aristotle best practically any rundown of the most effective scholars in mankind’s set of experiences. He truly was ‘The Philosopher.’
As a researcher and scholar, Aristotle had a wide scope of interests. He expounded on meteorology, science, physical science, verse, rationale, way of talking, and governmental issues and morals, among different subjects.
His works on a significant number of these interests stayed conclusive for right around two centuries. Aristotle’s speculations about the best moral and political life are drawn from considerable measures of experimental examination. Aristotle’s Politics was his significant work.
Brought into the world in 384 BC in Stagira, a modest community on the northern bank of Greece, Aristotle is one of the most notable figures throughout the entire existence of old Greece. He was a well-known student of renowned Plato.
However, not at all like Plato and Socrates, Aristotle showed a sense to utilize logical and genuine thinking in his investigation of nature, a characteristic his archetypes regularly disposed of for their philosophical considerations.
Maybe it was a direct result of his persistent interest in nature, rationale, and reason that he proceeded to make some critical commitments that are as yet reflected in cutting edge math, power, physical science, science, organic science, legislative issues, medication, and some more.
Aristotle’s Political Philosophy
The main text for understanding Aristotle’s political way of thinking, of course, is the Politics. The point of Aristotle’s Politics, Aristotle says, is to explore, based on the constitutions gathered, what makes for great government and what makes for awful government and to distinguish the variables ideal or negative to the protection of a constitution.
The philosophical background of Aristotle is from the structure of Greek city-states, that’s why he examined them very clearly and closely which is also reflected in his philosophy.
The basic purpose of Aristotle’s Politics is to create the best practicable state. For him, the state is a necessary community to achieve a better life for its citizens. Without a state, the individual is a meaningless fragment.
The state is the highest of all communities and product of naturalist teleology. Naturalism indicates the idea that all that exists is regular, and just normal laws and powers work on the planet.
Therefore, all information on the universe can be gotten through logical examination. A man by nature is a political animal, ought of which establishes and accept some superior power over them and ensure the working of that community.
Functions of State
According to Aristotle.
“The state was born to satisfy the needs of man”
The state is expected to empower all, in their families and their sovereignties, to live well, which means by that a full and fulfilling life. The residents and occupants won’t have a wonderful life if they have not set up a relationship among themselves through relationships and fraternities.
The state will guarantee freedoms using power. Any infringement of freedoms and misappropriation of the property will be forestalled by the state alone. It is the lawful right of the person to guarantee that their freedoms, freedoms, and property are to be ensured, and, simultaneously, it is the legitimate just as a moral obligation of the state to satisfy this interest.
Government in state
While portraying the administration arrangement of the ideal state, Aristotle principally depicts its three kinds of capacities and their finishing and its three sections. These are all part of Aristotle’s democracy.
There are three sorts of work – the get-together that settles on the issues identified with administration, that is, the assembly, of which every one of the residents is individuals. Aristotle calls it gathering. The subsequent part is the rulers and managers whose occupation is to control the public authority, that is, the chief.
Aristotle calls it the Magistracy. The third organ of the Parliament is the legal officials who play out the errand of apportioning equity. All residents are individuals thusly. This is the legal executive. Indeed, even in present-day times, it is these three pieces of the public authority or administration framework that make up it.
Various forms of Government
On the concept of forms of government, Aristotle contended that there were six general manners by which social orders could be coordinated under the political principle, contingent upon who administered, and for whom they dominated. True and just forms of government were Monarchy, aristocracy, polity. On the other hand, are other unjust forms of government are tyranny, oligarchy, and democracy.
Justice in state
The goodness or justness of a state can be measured through its capacity of it to serve the general interest of people instead of focusing on the interests of a few powerful or rulers. Aristotle believed in the concept of distributive justice which involves the fair distribution of benefits and burdens among the members of the community.
Aristotle was of the assessment that this type of equity is the most remarkable law to forestall any insurgency, as this equity has confidence in legitimate and proportionate distribution of workplaces, praises, labor, and products according to their prerequisite being a resident of the state.
Education in state
Aristotle emphasized the system of education in the state. Schooling is the most impressive weapon of making men great or of preparing them for ideals. The object of foundations ought to be to prepare men to goodness, not exclusively to scholarly, but to moral and physical, greatness.
Aristotle makes a theory of education for every citizen. Aristotle’s framework runs in a pattern of seven years, and instruction from 7 to 14 and 14 to 20 years is given by the state. In instruction from 7 to 14 years, the schooling of activity and music is the principle, and its point is the preparation of body and soul and advancement of moral characteristics. The point of instruction from 14 to 21 years is to give scholarly and military preparation.
Rule of Law
Aristotle’s ideal state is dependably constitutionally managed. As indicated by Aristotle, each great or ideal state should have a definitive sovereign law. All forms of state need the same kind of constitution. A constitution is considered as the basic law of a state that helps in determining power allocation and distribution of rights. He speaks.
“The rule of law is superior to the rule of the individual, because the law is such a conscience which is not affected by the will of the individual”.
Is Aristotle still Important?
Although his logical hypotheses were for the most part wrong, they assumed a part in fostering the sciences. Despite the developing acknowledgment of novel thoughts in the later hundreds of years, the Aristotelian idea is as yet important in our present society. In Aristotle’s political philosophy the key to an ideal state is a balance that is between democracies and oligarchies.
So, the system of governance will be comprised of involving traits of both. The check and balance of the American constitution are greatly influenced by this concept of Aristotle.
Constitutionalism is the main relevance
Aristotle favors blended political frameworks which find some kind of harmony between the overabundances of popular government and the oppression of theocracy. The American protected arrangement of balanced governance owes a lot of impacts to the Aristotelian hypothesis both direct and indirect way.
Somewhat English American political scholars saw similarities inside Aristotle’s political thoughts and the English constitution. The English Constitution was not planned by political scholars. Rather, it rose out of a progression of political tradeoffs north of many years. However, it addressed a harmony among Monarchy and Aristocracy and fused a few components of the majority rules system.
Existence of law of nature
Aristotle’s concept of distributive justice is still a guiding principle to ensure the proper working of a state system. It unifies them all multiple diversities of a state under one rule of law. It guides a citizen of the state to recognize their limits and act accordingly. Otherwise, the state will treat them according to rule of law. Aristotle’s Politics is the guiding principle for it.
What makes Aristotle significant is that he was the most powerful supporter of the view that one ought to be useful for the good of one’s own, not for any other individual. The person, as per Aristotle’s Politics, can accomplish these characteristics just through the participation of and subjection to the state.
He can’t have privileges and freedoms separated from the state or against the state. Aristotle believed that citizens of a successful state must serve their state in all possible ways.
In return, the state ensures the provision of fundamental rights of individual and individual liberty. He posits the organic theory of individualism which later forms the basis of liberalism which is a still practicing ideology.
Aristotle on democracy
The concept of Aristotle democracy is a concept that is relevant more than other concepts. Aristotle has a kind of disdain for the concept of pure democracy. Aristotle on democracy viewed it as the most corruptible and exploitable.
Aristotle’s inclination toward the type of government was the standard by best over the rest, and aristocracy based on merit instead of blooding. He believed that a good monarchy is even better than democracy if it is ensuring the purpose of state formation.
Still, this concept is related to democratic values that it is not serving individual rights, they would have a revolution against it to change it.
Signs that we are moving towards the degenerative type of popular government Aristotle cautioned against are all over the place. Consider, for instance, the restlessness of some who decided in favor of the UK to leave the European Union and accepted that once the mandated result was in, Brexit ought to have followed right away.
Political Scientist :
The main significant interesting point about the Greek thinkers is that they were philosophers and not scientists. But Aristotle is referred to as the father of political science because he believed in the evolutionary view of scientific investigation.
Aristotle is perceived as giving the most efficient composition on the idea of a logical request in the western custom, one which accepted perception and thinking about the normal world and based upon proper observation and reasoning.These concepts of scientific discovery and empiricism are still relevant in the modern world.
Aristotle’s Politics will always remain relevant because he forms the basis of philosophy and scientific methods to serve world political affairs. Aristotle’s political philosophy. Most of the time Aristotle is being criticized for his view on slavery and women but no other pioneer philosopher makes contributions like him.
Aristotle’s most noteworthy effects can be found in his formation of a rationale framework, set up many fields of sciences, and production of a way of thinking framework which fills in as one of the establishment works of reasoning even right up ’til the present time.
Hira Bibi is a student of BS Political Science at Quaid I Azam University Islamabad. She has an interest in reading and analysing world political affairs and writing about them. She can be reached at firstname.lastname@example.org.