Early Life of Sultan Salahuddin Ayubi
Sultan Salahuddin Ayubi was born in the Iraqi city of Tikrit. His real name was Abul Muzaffar Yousaf ibn Ayub, but people in the West called him Salahuddin or Saladin.
Salahuddin Ayubi came from a prominent Kurdish family. His father, Najm al-Dn Ayyb, relocated his family to Aleppo the night he was born to work for Imad al-Dn Zang ibn Aq Sonqur.
Saladin seems to have had a normal childhood in Balbek and Damascus. He was more interested in studying religion than in becoming a soldier.
Salahuddin Ayubi a Great Leader
In Islamic history, several courageous generals achieved much for Islam’s grandeur. One of these generals was Salahuddin Ayubi. Who is at the top of the list for his great leadership not only made up for the fact that his army was smaller. And didn’t have as many weapons.
Building Islamic Empire
Salahuddin may have been the most famous Muslim soldier after Ali ibn Abu Talib (r). He had a strong will and changed the way history went. It is well known that he was able to get the Crusaders out of Palestine and Syria.
The fact that he was able to create a single, solid Islamic government with no internal cracks is less well-known. This gave Muslims the chance to run the world for a short time.
Salahuddin’s generation retook Jerusalem, founded an Islamic empire in India, and prevented the Crusaders from capturing Spain and North Africa.
He also inspired his troops to do things in battle that were beyond brave. He was called “Scourge of God” and “Retribution from the Lord.” The European kings respected him as a worthy enemy.
Start of Military Career
Salahuddin Ayubi went to Egypt with his uncle Shirkuh in 1167. They were sent there by Nurdin Zengi, the ruler of Mosul and Aleppo. To help the ruler of Fatamid fight off the Crusaders.
Salahuddin took over as vizier of Egypt after the death of his uncle. His dominion once extended from the highlands of Kurdistan to Libya. The Seljuks conquered the Byzantine Empire in the Battle of Manzikert in 1071 and also presented a threat to Constantinople.
The Byzantine ruler, Alexious, immediately requested assistance from the European rulers to prevent the collapse of his empire. At the Pope’s direction, forces assembled, but instead of supporting the Byzantine emperor, they marched to liberate Jerusalem.
The Crusades showed that the West didn’t think Muslims were better than them. The goal was to get back to the Holy Land, and it was spread all over Europe by the Pope. The Crusader armies took control of the Holy City on July 13, 1099, after a week-long siege.
It happened 462 years to the day after Caliph Umar came to the city. With the Seljuk Empire now fragmented into several kingdoms, Muslims faced formidable challenges in their war against the Crusaders.
A Turkish Emir named Imad al-Din Zengi unified Mosul and Aleppo into a single empire and took on the Crusaders. However, because of two separate occurrences, the work of ousting the Franks from Jerusalem was put off for some time.
Kara Khitai, a barbaric Turkoman, beat the Seljuks in 1141, and they never got back on their feet. Assassins working for the Fatimids took Zengi’s life in the year 1146.
Nur al-Din Zengi, his son, kept up this work to bring Muslims together. Nuruddin, a man of exceptional skill, orchestrated a methodical operation to drive the Crusaders from West Asia.
Nuruddin was a devout, prejudice-free guy of excellent character. As a result of the many chances afforded by the unstable military environment, other troops ascended fast through the ranks of the army as a result of the many chances.
Two of them, Ayyub and Shirkuh, were officers. Shirkuh was also Salahuddin’s uncle. Nuruddin’s officers went on a careful campaign to take over all of northern Iraq, eastern Syria, and eastern Anatolia.
Damascus was incorporated in the year 1154.Nuruddin was prepared to confront the Crusaders in Palestine and take control of Egypt with these vast domains. Both of these conflicts would take place in Palestine.
Egypt had the answer to the question of Palestine. As long as the Fatimids controlled Egypt, the Crusaders couldn’t attack.
Situation of Cairo
In the year 1163, Cairo was ruled by two competing viziers. One of them extended an invitation to the Franks to participate in the conflict in Egypt. The other individual made a pitch to Nuruddin. Shirkuh was sent to Cairo in response to Nuruddin’s directive. In the year 1165, both the Seljuks and the Crusaders made an appearance in Egypt. However, neither group was successful in establishing a permanent stronghold there.
After a gap of two years, Shirkuh eventually made his way back to Egypt with his nephew Salahuddin. He attempted to reassert his control in the Nile Delta once again, and this time he was successful. Shirkuh was appointed as Mustadi, the last Caliph of the Fatimid dynasty, though Mustadi was under duress to do so. Shirkuh passed away in 1169, and his nephew Salahuddin was chosen to succeed him as Caliph of Baghdad.
Salahuddin Ayubi became an independent ruler when Nur Din Zengi passed away. He went on to conquer Syria and become the Sultan of Egypt, Hijaz, Yemen, and Syria.
In addition to these territories, he also ruled Yemen. Salahuddin Ayubi is credited with repelling Crusader attacks, putting down army revolts, and easing Egypt’s internal unrest.
End of Fatmid’s Rule
Despite three centuries of Fatimid rule, most Egyptians remained Sunni and followed Sunnah fiqh. The Fatimid Caliphate was overthrown by Salahuddin in the year 1171.
The khutba was revised such that it now includes the title of the Abbasid Empire’s Caliph. The Fatimid Caliph Mustadi did not know about the transfer and died peacefully a few weeks later.
The Fatimids previously ruled Mecca, Madina, and Jerusalem. However, they are no longer remembered today. The Turks’ promotion of a Sunni interpretation of history ultimately proved to be correct. By eliminating the Fatimid division, orthodox Islam was able to unify and issue a challenge to the Crusaders.
Historians disagree on whether or not man is the driving force behind history, or if rather, man’s circumstances and environment determine historical events. Totally missing the idea here. Human behaviour and the conditions in which it occurs are intrinsically linked.
Those who shape history have immense influence, shaping the course of events to their liking and leaving a path of destruction for posterity to decipher. However, luck plays a role in their success.
What is less well known about him is his skill in establishing an united political framework inside Islam that was free of internal struggle. This achievement gave Muslims the opportunity to dominate the events of the globe for a period of time.
It was Salahuddin’s generation that not only retook Jerusalem but also established the Islamic Empire in India and temporarily halted the Crusader expansion in Spain and North Africa.
Decision to Free Jerusalem
Ayubi made the decision to free Jerusalem because he felt it was his religious duty to free the Holy City. However, during this period, a group known as the Hashashin, sometimes known as assassins, rose to prominence and made two unsuccessful attempts to kill Ayubi.
Salahuddin Ayubi agreed to a cease-fire with Knight Reynald of Jerusalem, but Reynald broke the agreement on many occasions by attacking and murdering Muslim pilgrims and stealing from their caravans. Ayubi marched his army towards Jerusalem with the hopes of teaching him a lesson and freeing the Holy City in the process.
Lusignan led the Crusader army as they travelled 20 kilometres to meet Ayubi’s soldiers and set up camp at Hattin. Ayubi soldiers successfully obstructed access to the region’s one and only water supply. After many days of skirmishing and hard battle, Ayubi’s men were able to inflict a catastrophic loss upon the Crusaders, which resulted in the Crusaders being routed.
The soldiers led by Ayubi arrived on the outskirts of Jerusalem in September 1187. On October 2, 1187, following an attack that lasted for ten days, the city eventually capitulated to his men and surrendered.
The Holy City was freed on the 27th of Rajab, which was also the same day that the Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) joined all of the prior prophets in prayer and ascended to heaven from the Al-Aqsa mosque.
Following the success of this conquest, Ayubi’s reputation for valour quickly spread throughout Europe. After Jerusalem was conquered, all of the kings of Europe came together to organise their armies with the purpose of retaking the city. After a siege that lasted for two years, the Crusaders were finally successful in taking control of the town of Acre. Which was located in the southern region of Palestine.
The Battle of Arsouf
This resulted in the battle of Arsouf, which took place during the third crusade in 1191 and was a defeat for Ayubi’s soldiers. In spite of some early failures, he was successful in preventing the Crusaders from entering Jerusalem. Richard made two efforts to reach the city, but both of them were unsuccessful, and he eventually withdrew from the area. The third crusade was ultimately unsuccessful, and as a result, Richard made peace with Ayubi.
Under the stipulations of the agreement, Richard’s sibling would wed Salahuddin’s younger brother, Saifuddin. As part of the wedding dowry, the Crusaders would present the shoreline to the bride. Salahuddin was going to give Jerusalem to Saifuddin.
Then, Jerusalem would serve as the kingdom’s capital, and the bride and groom would rule as king and queen, respectively, to bring the two faiths together in a familial relationship. Salahuddin was pleased with their suggestions.
However, many Franks, including the priests, took a stand against this. Threats were made to exclude King Richard from the fellowship of the church. Richard yearned to go back to his own country because he was worn out and appalled by the narrow-mindedness of his fellow soldiers.
Richard and Salahuddin finally made peace. Jerusalem would remain under the Sultan’s administration, but it would be available to all faiths desiring to visit the Holy Land..
Protected would be the freedom of individuals to freely practise their religion of choice. The bulk of Syria and Palestine would continue to be ruled by Muslims, but the Franks would maintain possession of a thin strip of territory along the coast that would span from Jaffa to Tyre. This strip of land would be located between the two cities of Jaffa and Tyre.
The Third Crusade
The Third Crusade focused all of Europe’s efforts on a single goal—namely, the conquest of Jerusalem—in order to accomplish its goals. Acre was the only thing that the united might of Europe’s kings and their continent’s military strength were able to declare victory over. Acre was a very minor fortification.
Salahuddin made his way back to Damascus after his victory, where his countrymen greeted him as a hero and acclaimed him as a model of gallantry and bravery. He had accomplished something that very few people had done before him, and that was to unify the ummah against a common adversary.
LEGACY OF SULTAN SALAHUDDIN AYUBI
Salahuddin Yusuf ibn Ayyub, often known as Saladin in the Western world, had a reputation for being a courageous and forgiving warrior who was renowned for showing kindness even to his adversaries.
In addition to praying at various times during the day, he would always have an imam there to guide him through his prayers. Nevertheless, in the case that the imam was not there, he would pray behind any other pious researcher or Muslim. Except for the last three days of his life, when he was in a coma before he passed away, he never skipped a prayer in his whole life.
He would spend the most of his money on Sadqa (discretionary altruism), yet he never had enough to pay Zakat (mandatory offerings). Despite his continual desire to go Hajj, he was unable to do so since he was always immersed in jihad and required more money to do so.
The remainder of his days were spent devoting himself to prayer and acts of kindness, as well as establishing a just government and building schools and hospitals throughout his kingdoms. Salahuddin Ayubi died on March 4, 1193, at the age of 57. The Ayubi dynasty continued to control Syria and Egypt for decades after his death.
His residence was worth 47 dirhams and one dinar at the time, and he left no land or other property behind him. He was a great military commander who was revered even by his adversaries.
He had a strong trust in God, which gave him strength. After the conquest of Jerusalem, he was kind and merciful, and he showed tremendous magnanimity to Christians and Jews. Faith in God and affection for his people were the keys to his success.