Human rights in China; The fight between Uyghur Muslims and Chinese Han is decades old but after 2009 its more highlighted China has become absolutely aggressive. China was raised as an economic power in the world with a complex political system or Confucius civilization challenging the world order system. And challenging the world’s largest powers tries the alike US in international politics. Chinese scholars claim the Chinese political system and adopted their system. After the Chinese communist party (CCP) come to power. It initiated certain rules and regulations on the minorities’ rights banded the religious activities or cultural practices. These rules and regulations are against the norm of world order value in the twenty-century violations of human rights, women rights, Media censorship of media and band the religious practice particularly on the Uyghur Muslims or including Kazakh ethnic. The Chinese government is considered a threat to national security. Due to this Chinese government struggle with extremism and want to increase the rise of Arabization in China. As a result of this Chinese government introduced the policy of the sensitization of Islam. Chinese residents will have been fellow the Chinese culture or law; the major point this that unfortunately, the Islamic countries stay silent. In further would like to explain the mean reason of this issue. Due to this, I resaid this question to find the main argument of Human Rights violations in China and specifically with Uyghur Muslims why happened and the Muslim World stay silent without any reactions related to this controversial situation of Human Rights violations.
Uyghurs Muslim are living in the Xinjiang province of China. They are stalled their centuries ago ethnically they are Turks. They have a unique culture on China. They are the Sunni Islam followers had linkage with Arab Worlds of Turkey but more influenced by Saudi Arabia following the Wahhabi school of thoughts. China authorities concern them as threat to the China national security or China global vision due to this Chinese communist party decided to transform them into mixture nation with Han ethnic. Although in the case of population Uyghur Muslim are the majority in the Xinjiang regions the total population is 24 million 45% percent of Xinjiang populations. And Han dynasty of population day by day increased to this region because economics beneficiaries and mixture policy of China. It is the biggest concern for the Uyghur’s Muslims. Although Communist party restricted social media and media because of their policy suppressive regimes and want to a dominant ethnic although multiple ethnics groups lives theirs. The fight between Uyghur Muslims and Chinese Han is decades old but after 2009 its more highlighted China has become absolutely aggressive towards the Uyghur Muslims population. Uyghur’s is an indigenous ethnic group of northwestern China and interior Asia, In Uyghur language is a part of Altaic languages groups such as Turkic, Mongolian, etc. Uyghur’s are also the oldest Turkic-speaking people in the region. They are mentioned in 3rd century C.E but their prominence was seen in 8th century C.E when they established their own kingdom near Orkhan River around 10th century C.E Uyghur’s accepted Islam as their religion and were as Muslims. Nearly 80% of Uyghur’s are, Sunni Muslims. After Chinese revolution in1912, the Xingiang province was captured by the commander later, in 1928, he was assassinated and after the victory of the Chinese communist party (CCP) in 1949, the control government implement liberal policies in the region and the Xinjiang region was declared autonomous under great leap forward policy in 1958, the entire population of china, including rural populations was to be organized. During 1966-76 Mao Zedong started Cultural Revolution in order to distinguish Chinese modes of revolution from the Soviets. After the Cultural Revolution many Han Chinese immigrated to the Xinjiang region causing a demographic change in the region. The population of Uyghur’s in Xinjiang region has reduced from 76% to 42% due to immigration of Han Chinese from the other parts of China. Due to the immigration of other ethnic to the Xinjiang it impacted on the Uyghur’s life the persecution of Uyghur Muslims, detention camps killings after 2009, the violent outbreaks between the Uyghur Muslims and Han Chinese have increased considerably. For the violence in Xinjiang province, China has been blaming East Turkestan Islamic Movement
(ETIM) which has also been designated by the US States Department as the most militant of the ethnic Uyghur separatist groups. Citing security reasons, China has increased surveillance and crackdown measures in the Xinjiang region. Though denied by China, the ground reports done by the media groups such as the Guardian, Washington post, BBC etc. confirm the existence of detention camps in the region.
Geo-politically this region is more significance to the Chinese government. It connected China with central Asian countries and south Asian countries. Because of that this region is too important to the China since the 1990s enforced the policy of Lormicla policy means bilingual education to the Uyghur’s Muslim to controlling the influence of the Arab World. And the other threat is to the China East Turkistan Islamic Movements (ETIM) it challenge the China national security. Because Wahhabi are to radicals they fight anti –Chinese government as result of these issues it put China in dilemma situations regarding this issues China narrated three items to World.
The history or idea of terrorism was highlighted after the 9/11 incident to the world. The great powers create the discourse of global war and terror in the world. The US was the pioneer of this discourse to come in Afghanistan and fought the Taliban government and Osama Bin laden. It transformed world politics into a proxy competition and Chaos arena; however, China also thrived to use this opportunity to lobby the UN Security Council to recognize the Uyghur’s Muslims as a terrorist group. But the P5 power did not accept the China proposal even same government showed their resistance regarding this issue. But for the Chinese government, they are a terrorist because they were involved in a certain incident like the 2011 bombast attack on the commercial markets. And also in a recent report, the crime increased as compeer to the previous years.
China wants to legitimize its claims on the ETIM and Uyghur’s Muslims due to this China supported it is a repressive regime.
Separatism rise after the collapse Soviet Union in 1991 the freedom movement like East Turkistan Movement demanded freedom; urgently China government responded to them. Adopted the ban policy or sanctioned them to limit their activity in China. After the Afghanistan Jihad, all the radical fighters were inspired by them. They demanded a separate state themselves. There were two reasons for the separatism ideologies first after the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 the central Asian countries; also demanded separate states to themselves. But in reality, they had a miscalculation to themselves; they directly undermined the China government sovereignty in the international farms. China adopted a repressive policy toward them to stop them and also balance the enemies of China in the regions. The policy of counterbalance was initiated by the legendary leader of China Mao it was followed by the inherent states of Mao in China. The second point of the separatism in China is the significance of the geopolitics of Xinjiang and the rich resources of mains to this region. Xinjiang has the fifth largest gas resource in China. However, it is a geopolitical crossroad to China connecting the two deferent regions. Xinjiang has a line of communication between China the neighboring states.
China considers Xinjiang as a political-strategic point to create communication with the world. It is due to the open-door policy China adopted toward the world. To achieve the political vision of China’s great power policy in the world. China’s government and policymakers are distinct that political propaganda against China; the involvement of vantage powers to this dilemma to create an internal issue to China could not rise in the region and the world.
It is interesting that at a time when exclusionism, supremacism, and hyper-nationalism tendencies are globally on the rise, China has decided to launch its version of harmonizing society, this thinking might appear to negate the global trends but in essence, its objectives are similar and it has little space for accepting diversity.
The tension between China and US was highlighted after the house of Uyghur’s representative. Due to bargaining between them China representative claims; the US wants to damage it is the international image, China mainstream policy want to change the live standards of other’s Chinese resident, and also Chinese definition of extremism is complicated as it hardly differentiates between religious, ethnic, linguistic, and cultural grievances. Nor does this definition describe separately extremism, of both violent and non-violent verity. The de-radicalization program is also a massive exercise in the social culture engineering of its minority communities.
China political system
China’s political system is complex; it is not easy to explain China’s political system. Difference dynasties came and gone in Chinese history with various forms of cultural exceptionalism. Chinese political system is a little different than to other countries but China has its political system and is ruled with their Chinese value and norms. The China political system is close to the authoritarianism system of one-party rule in China; the Chinese communist party (CCP). CCP ruled in China for more than 63 years, this party came to power after the 1949 revolution by the legendry leader of China Mao Zedong. When he came to power introduced the communism system in China tell now. China also has the system of collective leadership system with seven top men in the party who will rule the whole of China. With this authoritarian system they limited the whole system only CCP can decide China’s future toward the world, fortunately, this system is successful in China and brought a massive change in China’s economy now China is the second-largest economy around the globe with a massive population. Chinese scholars call the 21st century is the Chinese century. China’s president in an annual speech on CCP told China model can be a better model for the world political system and we will not accept the western system means a Democracy system. This model is mixing authoritarian government with a clear system and market based on economy and a high level of technology. But china’s communism was different from USSR communism because China has the cultural exceptional Mao was Chinese he respected China exceptionality. These political systems were effective for China because China boosted fast in the world now china is one of the vantage power in the United Nation in the Security Council, China has the right of veto in the Security Council. For china, ideology is more important than the political system. As Chinese communist party claims that they will change the world. The system of collective leadership in china by seven men of the politburo standing committee and 25-member politburo the china highest decision making. When we look at the whole senior of china political system it is close to the aristocracy political system. Now china’s rise as an economy gauges power in the world with a clear policy by the name of peace and harmony policy toward the worldwide.
1: The Uighurs have twice declared an independent state of “East Turkestan” in the 1930s which was inspired by the Tibetan independence movement and many are now calling to break away from China. For China, Xingjian (home of Uighur Muslims) is too strategically important to allow an independence movement to get off the ground because it not only borders eight countries but also has oil and is home to China’s nuclear weapons testing sites.
2) Because of rising radical Islam in the world and it may have impacts on china as well?
According to different Human Rights groups the religious and other freedoms of Uyghur Muslims have been systematically abolished and they are now forced to live under a severely repressive system. The ruthless measures against Uyghur’s in the Xinjiang region is said to come directly from the Chinese President Xijinping absolutely no Mercy policy toward Uyghur’s minorities in 2018, the Human Rights panel of the UN had talked about possessing evidence of the presence of detention and genocide camps in the Xinjiang region. In 2020, the US has enacted Uyghur Human Rights policy act which mandates several US government bodies to report on the issues of human rights violations of Uyghur Muslims in Xinxiang.
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Rohuddin who's an Afghan national studied from School of politics and international relations Quaid e azam university, Islamabad and writes on history and current affairs.